Traffic Rules and Regulations
The following Traffic and Parking Regulations are effective August 1, 2014, and are subject to change. Any person, who owns, operates, and/or parks a motor vehicle on University of South Alabama (USA) property submits fully to all rules and regulations outlined in the following information. Faculty, Staff, and students are responsible for knowing the regulations governing the operation of motor vehicles at USA as outlined in this publication. Anyone operating a vehicle in violation of the University parking policy will be held responsible for any such violation. Failure to comply may result in university disciplinary action, fines, vehicle immobilization or impounding of vehicle.
All vehicles operated on the USA campus must be properly registered and display a current USA parking permit; twenty-four (24) hours a day, and seven (7) days a week.
Registration in itself is no guarantee of a parking space near the place where one works or attends class. The responsibility of finding a legal parking space rests with the vehicle operator. Parking for all permit holders is on a “first-come, first-served” basis only. A lack of space where one would like to park is not a valid excuse for violating any parking regulation.
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Anyone who operates a motor vehicle on the USA campus is required to register his/her vehicle with Parking Services and obtain a valid parking permit. This includes all employees, faculty, staff, designated guests, administrative officials, and all students. Regulations apply to students enrolled in day, evening, weekend, online web classes, and all enrolled students at other locations including Baldwin County, Brookley, Dauphin Island Sea Lab, and Springhill Avenue Campus (SHAC). The parking permit must be displayed from the rear view mirror with the permit number facing outward. The permit number must be clearly visible. Displaying it in any other location is considered a violation.
Visitors (individuals not affiliated with the University) must obtain an official visitor parking pass from Parking Services. The pass must be displayed from the rear view mirror with front of pass facing outward. The pass number must be clearly visible.
The University of South Alabama assumes no liability for damages to or loss of any vehicle or vehicle contents while parked on or in operation on University property.
USA Police Officers are authorized to issue citations for traffic and parking violations. All sworn officers have completed the Minimum Standards of Peace Officers for the State of Alabama (A.P.O.S.T. certification). University Police have full arrest powers granted by the State of Alabama (Title 16-55-10). Standard rules of the road for the city, county, and state will be observed on campus. Vehicles are to be parked in a designated parking space only (within lined spaces).
Yellow lined areas and curbs are considered no parking zones.
Vehicles are not to travel on or be parked on sidewalks, Jag Tran paths, lawns, grassed/landscaped areas or curbs or any other area not designated for vehicular traffic or parking.
The speed limit on campus roadways is 20/30 MPH (as posted) and 15 MPH in parking areas.
Pedestrians and persons riding bicycles on campus will comply with Title 32 of the Alabama Code.
Pedestrians must cross roadways within a marked crosswalk. Motorists must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk.
Vehicles are not to be parked within 15 feet of designated fire exits, fire department connections, or fire hydrants. Red curbs and/or red lined areas are fire lanes and must not be blocked at any time for any reason. Any street or roadway on campus where vehicles operate is considered a fire lane. Regulations affecting fire lanes are in effect at all times. Vehicles parked in fire lanes may be towed or wheel locked without notice day or night and charged an impounding/immobilizing fee in addition to the parking violation fine.
Visitors who bring a vehicle to campus must display a valid visitor parking pass in their vehicle. A visitor pass may be requested at Parking Services. A valid driver’s license must be presented to obtain a visitor pass.
Students are prohibited from using a visitor parking pass. Employees who are designated as a “Permit Custodian” from a University department are prohibited from providing visitor passes to a student for any reason. Failure to comply may result in vehicle immobilization, fines and university disciplinary action.
Parking Services is located in the Beta/Gamma Commons-Police Building, 290 Stadium Blvd. The entrance for Parking Services is located on the South side of the building. Office hours are 7:30 A.M. - 4:30 P.M. Monday - Friday.
Students who bring a vehicle to campus must obtain a student parking permit regardless of what semester they enroll. Student parking permits are valid August 1, 2014 through July 31, 2015. Student tuition and fees include one student parking permit per academic year. Students must be enrolled in order to obtain a parking permit. Providing false or incorrect information to Parking Services is a violation of the University Traffic and Parking Regulations as well as the University Student Code of Conduct and is subject to a $50.00 fine and University sanctions.
Online Registrations is RequiredStudents must order a parking permit online at www.southalabama.edu/departments/parkingservices/ . Permits are mailed to students for a fee of $5.00. A debit or credit card is needed to order a parking permit. A complete, valid mailing address is required. A permanent residence mailing address or a valid U.S. Post Office Box must be provided. Permits CANNOT be mailed to a Residence Hall or Greek House. Permits are mailed from the printing company; not from Parking Services. All students who live on campus are required to have a personal mail box to receive mail. Once the online permit transaction is completed, individuals will have the opportunity to print a temporary parking permit valid for twenty-one (21) days to allow for delivery time.
Students who are registered with Student Disability Services and require handicapped parking access or temporary special parking must register in person at Parking Services. Contact the office of Student Disability Services at 251-460-7212 for further information.
Vehicles may only be registered to one parking permit and to one student, with the exception of family members who may share a vehicle; however, students may not share permits. Parking permits are non-transferable and may not be used by anyone other than the registered owner. Permits found displayed in a vehicle registered to another student will be immobilized and the permit will be confiscated.
Individuals with a motorcycle or scooter must register in person at Parking Services. The issued reflective bumper sticker (parking decal) must be attached to the cycle and be clearly visible.
Faculty/Staff and Designated Guests
All Faculty, staff, and designated guests who qualify for a USA ID card, must purchase a faculty/staff parking permit regardless of what month they begin employment. Faculty/Staff parking permits are valid November 1, 2014 through October 31, 2015. The fee for a Faculty/Staff parking permit is $20.
Online Registrations is Required
Faculty, staff, and designated guests must order a parking permit online at www.southalabama.edu/departments/parkingservices/. Only one parking permit may be purchased online. A debit or credit card is needed to order a parking permit online. A complete and valid mailing address is required (if mailing to a campus address, please provide the street address). Permits are mailed from the printing company; not from Parking Services. Once the permit transaction is completed, individuals will have the opportunity to print a temporary parking permit valid for twenty-one (21) days to allow for delivery time.
Individuals with a motorcycle or scooter must register in person at Parking Services. Motorized vehicles, including scooters and mopeds, are required to have a state issued license plate. The university issued parking decal must be attached to the cycle and be clearly visible.
Parking registration is an individual responsibility. Parking permits are assigned to individuals and ownership of permits is nontransferable. Parking permits may not be used by anyone other than the registered permit owner. The registered permit owner is responsible for any fines incurred; therefore, it is imperative to immediately report any lost or stolen permit and to immediately destroy all expired permits.
A valid USA parking permit must be displayed, unobstructed from the rearview mirror, facing outward, twenty-four (24) hours a day, seven (7) days a week. Failure to obtain a parking permit, improper display or failure to display a parking permit is considered a parking violation and will result in a “no permit visible” and a “zone violation” citation. No individual shall display more than one USA parking permit on any one vehicle.
Students are prohibited from the use of or possession of a faculty/staff parking permit, retiree permit, visitor parking pass, patient parking pass or any pass/permit other than his or her registered student parking permit. Unauthorized possession ORuse of a faculty/staff parking permit, retiree permit, or any form of non-affiliate parking pass by a student will result in disciplinary action, fines, and vehicle immobilization.
Faculty/staff are prohibited from purchasing a faculty/staff permit for ANY student, student family member, student assistant, graduate assistant or any other person. Unauthorized possession ORuse of a faculty/staff permit by a student will result in university disciplinary action (student and employee), fines, and vehicle immobilization.
Student employees, by virtue of their work for the university are not exempt from parking rules and regulations during enforceable hours. Student employees are not eligible for a faculty/staff parking permit.
Expired permits must be removed from motor vehicles and destroyed. Expired permits are not valid and if displayed in a vehicle, a citation will be written for no current parking permit visible.
Providing false or incorrect information to Parking Services will result in disciplinary action, fines, and vehicle immobilization.
Use or possession of a reported lost, stolen, altered, or counterfeit parking permit or parking pass will result in university disciplinary action, fines, and vehicle immobilization.
Lost or stolen permits must be reported to Parking Services immediately. The replacement fee is twenty dollars ($20.00).
University parking lots are divided into six (6) zones: Resident, Gamma, North, South,
East, and Central.
Zone parking is in effect Monday – Friday, 7:00 a.m. – 1:45 p.m. during fall and spring semesters. After 1:45 p.m., vehicles with any valid USA parking permit may park in any student parking space on campus; however, a current permit must be displayed in the vehicle.
Zoned parking is not enforced during the summer semester. Students must park in a student parking space (white lines only) and a current permit must be displayed in the vehicle. All regulations, with the exception of zone parking, are enforced during the summer semester and parking tickets are issued for such violations.
Zoned lots are reserved for permit holders with the corresponding zoned parking permit properly displayed in their vehicle. Removing a permit to park out of zone or failure to display the correct permit will result in a zone violation AND a no permit visible citation.
Student parking spaces are designated with white lined spaces.
Faculty/staff parking spaces are designated with blue lined spaces, except handicap parking spaces which are clearly marked with signs and/or pavement symbols.
Faculty/staff parking spaces are enforced between the hours of 7:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. Monday through Friday. If a student parks his/her vehicle in a faculty staff parking space after 5:00 p.m., the vehicle must be moved from the space by 7:00 a.m. the next business day. Failure to move a vehicle from a faculty staff space will result in a citation.
Parking permits are required twenty-four (24) hours a day, seven (7) days a week. Parking permits must be displayed from the rear view mirror facing outward. The permit number must be clearly visible and not covered or obstructed in any way. Displaying it in any other location or in any other manner is considered a violation (No Parking Permit Visible).
All on-campus resident students, including The Grove, sorority and fraternity residents, must obtain a Resident zone permit with the exception of Gamma residents who must obtain a Gamma zone permit. Resident student vehicles must remain parked in the Residence Hall parking lots during the time of zone enforcement; 7:00 a.m.-1:45 p.m., Monday through Friday. Gamma residents must leave their vehicles parked in the Gamma lot during zone enforcement time.
All Residence Hall lots are closed to non-resident vehicles after visiting hours: Sunday-Thursday, 12:00 a.m. (midnight), and Friday-Saturday 2:00 a.m. Vehicles found in the residence hall lots after hours, including Gamma and Greek lots, are subject to towing unless the guest is registered and approved by the Community Director.
Vehicles parked in a zoned lot different from the displayed permit will result in a zone violation citation. Failure to obtain a current parking permit, removing a permit to park out of zone or failure to display the correct permit will result in a zone violation AND a no permit visible citation.
If resident/commuter status at the University changes and a different permit is required, students are responsible for returning their permit to Parking Services and ordering the proper permit.
Obtaining a permit other than the allowed permit will result in disciplinary action, possible fines, and vehicle immobilization.
Commuter students must choose a zone in which to park and remain parked in that zone during the hours of zone enforcement; 7:00 a.m. – 1:45 p.m., Monday through Friday. Vehicles parked in a zoned lot different from the displayed permit will receive a zone violation citation. Failure to obtain a current parking permit, removing a permit to park out of zone or failure to display the correct permit will result in a zone violation AND a no permit visible citation.
All Residence Hall lots are closed to non-resident vehicles after visiting hours: Sunday-Thursday, 12:00 a.m. (midnight), and Friday-Saturday 2:00 a.m. Vehicles found in the residence hall lots, including Gamma and Greek lots, are subject to towing unless the guest is registered and approved by the Community Director.
- Resident zone parking permits are for students who reside in Beta, Epsilon, Delta, New Residence Hall, Stokes Hall, Greek Houses, and The Grove. During the time of zone enforcement, the Resident parking permit is only valid in Residence Halls (except Gamma), Greek, and Grove parking lots and the Beta side of Stadium Boulevard. The Dining Hall is also located in a Resident zone.
- Gamma zone parking permits are for Gamma residents only. During the time of zone enforcement, the Gamma parking permit is only valid in the Gamma parking lot and the Gamma side of Stadium Boulevard.
- North zone parking permits are only valid in North Chemistry, North Humanities, and the Library parking lots during the time of zone enforcement.
- South zone parking permits are only valid in Administration, Computer Services, and Laidlaw Performing Arts, Mitchell College of Business, Shelby Hall, University Commons, and Health & Physical Education parking lots during the time of zone enforcement.
- East zone parking permits are only valid in Alpha Hall East, Alpha Hall South, Biomedical Library, Health Sciences (HAHN), Instructional Laboratory (ILB), College of Medicine, and Visual Arts parking lots during the time of zone enforcement.
- Central zone parking permits are only valid in South Chemistry, South Humanities, and the old Engineering Buildings on South Drive (Jag Success and Communications Department), Faculty Court South, Gamma lot (not on Stadium Blvd), Student Center, and the Bookstore parking lots during the time of zone enforcement.
Additional parking is available at Technology & Research Park III, University Commons and the Gravel Auxiliary Lot behind Greek Row near the Intramural Fields. These are available with any valid USA parking permit.
The University does not guarantee a parking space near the place where one works or attends class. Responsibility for finding an authorized parking space in the proper zone rests with the operator of each vehicle. LACK OF SPACE, RAIN, OR INCLEMENT WEATHER IS NOT A VALID EXCUSE FOR VIOLATION OF THESE REGULATIONS.
Students must park in the white lined parking spaces inside their designated parking zones. Parking zone restrictions are enforced from 7:00 a.m. to 1:45 p.m., Monday through Friday. After 1:45 p.m., a student may park his/her vehicle in any student parking space (white lines) in any zone. Most parking lots are posted with signs indicating parking zone. Please refer to the campus parking map found online at: www.southalabama.edu/parkingservices . A valid USA parking permit must be displayed, unobstructed from the rearview mirror, facing outward, at all times while a vehicle is parked on campus.
Faculty/Staff members (all employees) and designated guests who qualify for a USA ID card, must purchase a faculty/staff parking permit and park in the blue lined parking spaces. A valid USA parking permit must be displayed, unobstructed from the rearview mirror, facing outward, at all times while a vehicle is parked on campus. Blue lined, faculty/staff parking spaces are enforced from 7:00 a.m. until 5:00 p.m. Monday through Friday.
State issued handicap placards and license plates are assigned to individuals and their ownership is non-transferable. They may not be used by anyone other than the registered owner who is handicapped. Parking spaces designated for disabled persons are enforced 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Vehicles parked illegally in these spaces may be wheel locked or towed and charged an impounding/immobilizing fee in addition to the handicap violation fine. Handicap placards and license plates issued by states are valid on campus only after they are registered with Student Disability Services.
Handicap placards are subject to verification with the DMV.
Handicap placards and license plates are non-transferable. Use of a handicap placard or plate by another individual is a misdemeanor and punishable by law.
Special Parking Permits
Students who require handicap parking spaces must first register with Student Disability
Services, 5828 Old Shell Road. Proof of disability will be required. Students will
then obtain a Special Parking permit from Parking Services.
A valid state issued handicap placard or license plate registered to the student must be displayed along with the Special Parking permit.
Students who require temporary special parking must first register with Student Disability Services, 5828 Old Shell Road. Proof of disability will be required. Students will then obtain a temporary Special Parking permit from Parking Services. The temporary special permit will be affixed to the current student permit and allows parking in any available student or faculty/staff space; however, parking in handicap parking spaces is prohibited.
Faculty/Staff who have a valid handicap placard or license plate registered by the state, in his/her name, may park in a handicap parking space. Faculty/staff parking permits must be displayed along with the state issued handicap placard or handicap license plate.
Faculty/Staff members with a temporary disability who require the use of handicap parking spaces must obtain a temporary handicap placard from the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). A valid faculty/staff parking permit must be displayed along with the state issued temporary handicap placard.
Motorcycle/ Scooter SpacesPersons riding a registered motorcycle or scooter should park in designated motorcycle spaces. Automobiles may not park in motorcycle spaces.
Persons riding a registered motorcycle or scooter should park in designated motorcycle spaces. Automobiles may not park in motorcycle spaces.
Mitchell Center Parking
This lot is available with any current valid parking permit except when events are scheduled in the Mitchell Center. This lot is subject to close with or without notice.
University Commons Parking
This lot will be closed daily to overnight parking beginning at 11p.m.-5 a.m. This includes any vehicle with a USA parking permit. Vehicles parked after hours will be towed.
Meisler Hall Parking
This parking lot is designated a visitor only parking lot. However, students are allowed to use the timed 30 minute parking spaces to conduct University business. Students and employees are not permitted to park in visitor parking spaces or use a visitor parking pass to park on campus.
Patient Parking Spaces
Patient parking spaces are provided for non-affiliate patients of the on campus clinics. Students and employees are not permitted to park in patient parking spaces or use a patient parking pass to park on campus. Students and employees, who are also patients, must park in their designated parking zones and/or parking spaces.
Reserved Orange Spaces
Students and employees are not permitted to park in reserved orange parking spaces or use an orange visitor parking pass for any reason.
University and Delivery Vehicle Parking
Official USA vehicles or vendor/ delivery vehicles are permitted to utilize these spaces. Students and employees are prohibited from parking in university and delivery vehicle parking spaces.
The Dining Hall is located in a Resident zoned lot. Resident zone permits are required Monday – Friday, 7:00 a.m. – 1:45 p.m. in the paved parking lots. Any valid parking permit is allowed in the gravel parking lots behind the Greek houses, near the dining hall.
Gravel(non-zoned) Parking Lots:
Any vehicle with a current USA parking permit may park in the gravel parking lots at any time unless the lots are closed for special events. Gravel lots are available at the Mitchell Center, along Old Shell Road near Stanky Field, and behind the Greek houses.These lots are subject to being restricted/closed without prior notice. Closure of these lots is not an excuse for parking out of your assigned zone.
Athletic Field Lots
Athletic field lots along Old Shell Road and Stadium Boulevard, between Old Shell Road and Gamma Connector, are closed daily from 11 p.m. – 5:00 a.m. Vehicles parked after hours will be towed.
In addition to the traffic laws of the state of Alabama, the following University regulations are enforced by the University Police Department. Persons operating vehicles on campus are subject to the provisions of the Traffic Code of the State of Alabama. Violators may be issued a Uniform Traffic Citation and/or arrested and subject to the established court proceedings for such offenses.
|• No current parking permit visible -
expired permit, no permit, Permit obstructed or improperly displayed permit
|• Parking in a faculty/staff
space without a valid f/s permit (students are prohibited from using a f/s permit)
|• Improper parking -
double parking or parking on or over the lines which designate a legal parking space
|• No parking zone -
yellow lines, curbs, any area of campus which has not been designated a parking area
|• Zone violation -
parked in wrong zone, parked out of zone
|• Parking on grass or sidewalk -
lawn or grassed areas, landscaping, on or blocking sidewalk
|• Overtime parking -
exceeding the allowed posted time
|• Parking in a driveway or roadway||$15.00|
|• Parking in a fire lane -
red curbs, fire hydrant, red lines
• Handicapped parking -
|• Decoy ticket -
previously issued citation left on or placed on vehicle to mislead the ticketing officer
|• Use of a stolen, lost, altered or counterfeit permit/pass||$50.00|
|• Wheel lock -
|• Unauthorized removal or tampering of a wheel lock offender is subject to fines,
arrest, and criminal charges
|• Other -
officer specified miscellaneous offense i.e. patient parking, delivery zone, loading zone, visitor parking, misuse of permit, etc.
|• Providing false information to Parking Services||$50.00|
Vehicles not parked in accordance with University Traffic and Parking Regulations, including safety hazards are subject to being cited, wheel locked (immobilized), or towed (impounded) at the owner’s/operator’s expense. The owner/operator of the vehicle is subject to university disciplinary action (student or employee) and will be held responsible for all fees and unpaid traffic fines involved.
- Vehicles parked in or obstructing use of a handicap space, ramp, or curb cut without proper permit documentation may be wheel locked or towed.
- Vehicles parked in any reserved space, loading zone, or University/delivery vehicle only space may be wheel locked or towed.
- Vehicles left unattended, impeding the normal flow of traffic, whether in the roadway, alleyway, or parking lot may be towed.
- Vehicles blocking a fire lane may be towed..
- Any vehicle which is hampering emergency personnel in the performance of their duty or any emergency situation (i.e., fire, weather disaster, etc.) may be towed.
- Vehicles parked in any tow away zone may be wheel locked or towed.
- Vehicles parked in unauthorized locations or without proper permit may be wheel locked or towed.
- Vehicles parked on campus without a license plate and/or vehicle identification number visible may be wheel locked until proof of ownership can be established.
- Abandoned or disabled vehicles will be issued a seven (7) day tow-notice after which time, if the vehicle remains on campus, the vehicle will be towed at the owner’s/operator’s expense. A current parking permit displayed inside an abandoned or disabled vehicle does not exempt a vehicle from being towed.
- Any vehicle incurring four or more citations may be wheel lock or towed.
- Vehicles that are unregistered or have unpaid citations may be wheel locked or towed.
- Any individual found using or in possession of a reported lost or stolen parking permit, altered or counterfeit parking permit, temporary or unauthorized parking pass will have his/her vehicle wheel locked or towed. In addition to the wheel lock fine, students will be referred to the Dean of Students Office and employees will be referred to their Department Head or Dean and/or the Department of Human Resources for disciplinary action.
- Vehicles with a deactivated permit, invalid, revoked or suspended parking permit displayed may be wheel locked or towed.
- Any individual found displaying a permit or pass other than his/her own will have his/her vehicle wheel locked or towed. The unauthorized permit or pass will be confiscated.
- Students with a faculty/staff permit or retiree permit displayed in his/her vehicle will have his/her vehicle wheel locked or towed and the faculty/staff permit will be confiscated.
- Any individual who removes a wheel lock without authorization or damages a wheel lock while tampering with or attempting to remove the wheel lock is subject to fines, university disciplinary action, and possible arrest and restitution.
- Vehicles parked in restricted lots after hours (athletic fields, Mitchell Center, Residence Halls) without permission may be towed.
In addition to the above stated sanctions, loss of campus driving and/or parking privileges may also be imposed.
Parking citations are paid online at www.southalabama.edu/departments/parkingservices. Citation appeals must be made within twenty (20) calendar days of issuance. Transcripts and diplomas will not be released until payment is made in full. Students with a balance exceeding $200 will not be allowed to register for classes.
Parking citations are paid online at www.southalabama.edu/departments/parkingservices. Citations may be appealed within twenty (20) calendar days of issuance. All citations must be paid in full prior to purchasing a new faculty/staff parking permit. Excessive citations and unpaid fines may be reported to an employee’s Department Head/Dean and/or Human Resources for disciplinary action.
Important Notice: Beginning October 31, 2014, any outstanding or past-due fines related to citations issued after October 1, 2014, will be subject to collection through payroll deduction. A fine is considered "outstanding" or "past-due" if it remains after the 21-day appeal window has expired or any officially filed appeals have been exhausted. Also, any past fines currently outstanding must be paid before purchasing a new parking permit.
Parking citations are paid online at www.southalabama.edu/departments/parkingservices. Citations may be appealed within twenty (20) calendar days of issuance.
Any person who receives a University parking citation and believes there are valid reasons to appeal the citation, may file a written appeal online within twenty (20) calendar days of issuance at www.southalabama.edu/departments/parkingservices . Verbal parking appeals are not accepted by telephone or in person at the Parking Services window. Failure to file an appeal within the 20 days allowed renders the tickets and associated fines as final.
Each citation must be appealed separately. Combining citations on one appeal is not acceptable and the appeal will not be considered.
If citations are paid during the appeals process, the appeal will be cancelled. Individual accepts responsibility of the citation when a payment is made.
The Student Government Association (SGA) will make a determination on student appeals.
The USA Traffic Appeals Committee will make a determination on appeals submitted by faculty, staff and designated guests.
Individuals are notified of appeal results via the email address provided with each appeal.
Official visitors to the University should present their ticket at Parking Services located at Beta/Gamma Commons, 290 Stadium Blvd. A valid driver’s license is required. Verbal parking appeals are only accepted by visitors (non-affiliates of USA). Visitors may also file a written appeal online within twenty (20) calendar days of issuance.
If a student believes the SGA has made an error in the appeals process, they may submit a second appeal within ten (10) calendar days of the result of the first appeal by contacting the SGA at (251) 460-7191.
If a faculty, staff, or designated guest believes the USA Traffic Appeals Committee has made an error in the appeals process, they may submit a second appeal within ten (10) calendar days of the result of the first appeal by sending an email to firstname.lastname@example.org .
Second appeal decisions are final.
The following reasons are NOT acceptable grounds for dismissing a parking or traffic citation.
- Lack of knowledge of the Traffic and Parking Regulations
- Inability to find a proper parking space/no parking space available
- Inclement weather
- Late for class
- No permit displayed/failure to obtain proper permit
- Permit used by another person/operation of the vehicle by another person
- Failure of officers to ticket previously for similar offense
- Disagreement with the Traffic and Parking Regulations
- Forgot or did not have time to appeal within the prescribed time frame